- To compare the outcomes of intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) with intravesical electromotive drug administration (EMDA) of BoNTA on urinary incontinence secondary to neuropathic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in children with myelomeningocele (MMC).
- To present our long-term experience of bladder plate herniation technique in patients with bladder exstrophy epispadias complex (BEEC) and inadequate bladder plate.
- To investigate the long-term efficacy and success rate of intravesical electromotive botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) “Dysport” administration in patients with myelomeningocele who had urinary incontinence due to neuropathic detrusor overactivity (NDO).
- To investigate the effect of low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration on structural changes in the lower urinary tract in boys with urinary incontinence in the setting of bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC).
- To evaluate maternal urinary CA19-9 as a potential marker to diagnose severe antenatal hydronephrosis (ANH) during pregnancy and to compare the values with those in normal pregnancies as controls.