Prostate Cancer Nonascitic Peritoneal Carcinomatosis After Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: 3 Case Reports and Review of the LiteratureRobot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is one of the treatment options for localized prostate cancer, with an excellent disease control rate. However, these patients can experience late disease recurrence with metastatic dissemination. Peritoneal metastases are an uncommon recurrence site. Here, we discuss 3 cases of peritoneal metastases following robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and the mechanisms of peritoneal invasion. Through a literature review and our case reports, we postulate the existence of 2 distinct mechanisms of peritoneal invasion: one being iatrogenic, following a laparoscopic surgery with a well differentiated prostate cancer at a nonadvanced stage of the disease, the other involving the natural course of poor-prognosis tumors, even without surgery.
Active Surveillance of Small Renal MassesMost renal masses in the United States are incidentally detected via abdominal imaging. This has led to an increase in the incidence of small renal masses (≤4 cm). Active surveillance is, an oncologically safe option in slow growing and indolent tumors in other organs and has recently become more widely studied in small renal masses. For selected patients, particularly those who harbor significant comorbidities, active surveillance is a safe option for small renal masses. Renal biopsy may be helpful in the decision making process, but remains an optional component for the active surveillance of small renal masses.