Health Services Research
- To compare differences in the characteristics and outcomes of inpatient consults between academic and private practice urologists.
- To compare the associations between frailty indices and postoperative complications among older adults undergoing common urologic procedures. Frailty is known to be strongly associated with poor postoperative complications; however, the optimal way to measure frailty remains unknown.
- To further explore the issue of work parity between male and female urologists in the context of demographics, practice characteristics, subspecialty affiliation, and planned retirement.