Transgender Surgery|Articles in Press

Gender-affirming Vaginoplasty and Vulvoplasty: An Initial Experience


      To describe the initial outcomes of a new multidisciplinary gender-affirming surgery (GAS) program comprised of plastic and urologic surgeons.


      We retrospectively examined consecutive patients who underwent gender-affirming vaginoplasty or vulvoplasty between April 2018 and May 2021. We used logistic regression modeling to analyze associations between preoperative risk factors and postoperative complications.


      Between April 2018 and May 2021, 77 genital GAS (gender-affirming surgery) procedures were performed at our institution (56 vaginoplasties, 21 vulvoplasties). All surgeries were performed in combination with urology and plastic surgery primarily using the perineal penile inversion technique. Mean patient age was 39.6 years, and mean BMI was 26.2 (Table 1a). The most common pre-existing conditions were hypertension and depression, with nearly 14% of patients reporting a previous suicide attempt. The complication rate for vaginoplasty was 53.7% within the first 30 days (Table 4). The most common complications were yeast infection (14.8%) and hematoma (9.3%). For vulvoplasty, the 30-day complication rate was 57.1%, with urinary tract infection (14.3%) and granulation tissue (9.5%) being the most common. 88.1% and 91.7% of the complications were Clavien-Dindo grade I or II for vaginoplasties and vulvoplasties, respectively. No association was found between preoperative patient factors and postoperative complications. Revision surgeries were performed for 38.9% of vaginoplasty patients during the study period, most commonly including urethral revision (29.6%), labia majoraplasty (20.4%), and labia minoraplasty (14.8%).


      Collaboration between urology and plastic surgery is a safe and effective means to establish a GAS program.
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