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Bullseye Technique to Optimize S3 Foramen Access: Applying a Trusted Endourology Technique to Pelvic Medicine

Published:November 02, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2022.10.011

      Abstract

      Background

      Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is an advanced therapy that stimulates sacral spinal nerves to modulate bladder or bowel dysfunction and is approved for the treatment of overactive bladder, fecal incontinence, and non-obstructive urinary retention. Prior to implantation, a successful trial period must be performed via percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) or a staged trial to assess treatment efficacy. Ideal lead placement in the S3 foramen is imperative to produce an adequate response and successful outcome. Traditional lead placement with fluoroscopic guidance utilizes the anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views. In this abstract we describe an additional modification which may aid lead placement.

      Objective

      This video demonstrates the bullseye technique to obtain S3 foramen access for optimal lead placement in SNM.

      Methods/Material

      Begin the procedure by placing the patient in the prone position. The medial edges of the S3 foramen are marked bilaterally in the AP view followed by a horizontal marking at the level of S3. The pelvis is imaged with live fluoroscopy starting at 0 degrees and then rotating the C-arm to 30 degrees. This rotation allows the “opening up” of the S3 foramen from an ellipsoid to an oval. The surgeon grasps the needle with a Kelly clamp, placing it at the level of the skin approximately 2 cm cephalad from the horizontal marking. Live fluoroscopy is performed to align the needle with the image intensifier to form the bullseye. Once the correct angle is identified, the needle is advanced. The procedure is repeated on the contralateral foramen.

      Results

      The bullseye technique allows quick and predictable access into S3. It can potentially decrease operating time, minimize needle entries in PNE, and allows the surgeon to access S3 while maintaining proper medial orientation.

      Conclusion

      The bullseye technique can assist surgeons in obtaining optimal access in SNM and can quickly be integrated into current practices.
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