Family Planning and Fertility Counseling Perspectives of Gender Diverse Adults and Youth Pursuing or Receiving Gender Affirming Hormone Therapy

Published:October 28, 2022DOI:



      To describe family planning and fertility counseling perspectives of reproductive-age gender diverse adults and youth pursuing gender affirming hormone therapy.

      Materials and Methods

      This was a cross sectional survey study of gender diverse adults and youth pursuing or receiving gender affirming hormone therapy. The primary outcomes of interest were parental desire and priorities for fertility preservation.


      Fifty-seven individuals (46 adults and 11 youths) completed the survey; 51% were transgender women, 35% were transgender men, and 14% identified as non-binary. 32 participants expressed interest in (n = 15, 26%) or uncertainty about (n = 18, 32%) future parenthood. 48% of participants had considered gamete cryopreservation, but only 7% each previously completed or planned to pursue this fertility option; 67% cited cost as a barrier. Participants with interest in or uncertainty about future parenthood were more likely to consider cryopreservation (P <.001) or stopping hormones for fertility preservation (P <.001). 58% of respondents reported discussing fertility preservation with a health care provider with lower rates among youth participants (P = .017). From a family planning perspective, 58% of respondents described counseling as adequate; 23% described it as inadequate and 19% reported not receiving any counseling. Participants who endorsed strong or uncertain parental desire were more likely to report inadequate counseling (P = .016).


      Gender diverse individuals interested in or undecided about future parenthood were more likely to consider cryopreservation and report inadequate family planning counseling. Therefore, current counseling practices may be insufficient and referral to a fertility specialist should be considered.
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