Multifocality of Prostate Cancer and Candidacy for Focal Therapy Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging



      To determine the prevalence of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI)-detected and targeted biopsy-confirmed multifocal and unifocal prostate cancer (PCa) among patients with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) ≥3 lesions. Focal therapy (FT) options for PCa are tied to accurate spatial identification on mpMRI.


      Men without prior diagnosis of PCa receiving mpMRI, targeted and systematic prostate biopsy in the Prospective Loyola Urology mpMRI (PLUM) Prostate Biopsy Cohort from 2015-2021 were included. Patients with PI-RADS ≥3 lesions were classified by mpMRI lesion location, targeted biopsy, and systematic biopsy. Patients with single biopsy-confirmed grade group (GG) 2 lesions and concordant systematic biopsy were defined as FT candidates. Multivariable logistic regression evaluated predictors of mpMRI-undetected contralateral PCa.


      Of 897 patients, 450 (50.2%) had a single, 141 (15.7%) had multiple unilateral, and 306 (34.1%) had bilateral mpMRI lesions. 28.7% had a single targeted biopsy-confirmed lesion while 10.4% were multifocal. Among single targeted biopsy-confirmed patients, 92/257 (35.8%) had contralateral PCa missed by mpMRI with DRE, PSA, and biopsy history identified as independent predictors. Systematic biopsy findings dropped the rate of single confirmed lesions from 28.7% to 18.4% and multifocal PCa increased from 10.4% to 20.6%. After GG restrictions, 61/897 (6.8%) remained potential FT candidates.


      Among men with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer receiving mpMRI, 28.7% had a single targeted biopsy-confirmed lesion and 10.4% had multifocality on mpMRI, but many mpMRI-undetected contralateral PCa were identified. Only 6.0% of biopsy-naïve men remained with a single GG2 mpMRI lesion potentially amenable to FT.
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