Barriers to entry is a common economics and business term that refers to factors that might prevent or preclude newcomers from entering a particular market or industry. We can apply this concept to evaluate the potential entry barriers into urology that underrepresented in medicine (URiM) students might face. For applicants applying to urology, barriers to entry may come in the form of high application and travel costs, perceived increased travel time needed for interviews, lack of a home program, lack of a social and/or academic mentor, low USMLE scores, etc. While these barriers may be faced by any applicant applying to any specialty, time constraints and high costs are anecdotally used to explain the lack of diversity in residency programs, especially in urology.
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