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Local and Regional Recurrences of Clinically Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma after Nephrectomy: A 15 Year Institutional Experience with Prognostic Features and Oncologic Outcomes

      Abstract

      Objective

      To evaluate outcomes for patients with local recurrence (LR) of clinically localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC) without concurrent systemic metastasis from our institution, an event that occurs rarely (1%-3%) after surgery. LR may be a harbinger of poor outcomes, and the best management of these patients is unclear.

      Materials/Methods

      We retrospectively reviewed patients surgically treated for clinically localized RCC (cT1-2N0M0) with subsequent LR (in the partial or radical nephrectomy bed) and/or regional recurrence (RR; in the abdomen distant from the direct site of surgery) without concurrent metastasis from our institutional database (2004-2018). Comparative and survival analyses were performed.

      Results

      Out of 3038 total patients, 1895 had clinically localized RCC, with 30 patients (1.6%) having isolated LR/RR. Median time to recurrence was 26.5 months (IQR:16-35). Of 26 patients treated with local therapy, 14 (53.8%) recurred over a median follow-up time of 29.5 months (IQR:12-45). The 1-year and 2-year secondary recurrence-free survival rates are 60.7% and 49.7%, respectively. Two or more sites of locoregional recurrence significantly predicted secondary recurrence/metastasis after local therapy for local recurrence (hazard ratio: 2.22, P= .04).

      Conclusion

      Our results suggest local therapy is appropriate for select patients with LR/RR, with almost 50% of patients undergoing a second local therapy remaining alive with “local cure” and no secondary recurrence. The number of sites of recurrence can be used to better select patients that will benefit from local therapy or systemic/combination therapy. This work provides a framework onto which further studies regarding local therapy and locoregional recurrence of RCC can be performed.

      Keywords

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