The editors note there exists a bottleneck at the level of recruiting underrepresented minority (URM) students into medical school. We made reference to this phenomenon citing the prevalence of URM students in medical school in 2019 was 14%, with a similar lag in URM (including Asian trainees) representation in urology trainees at 17.7% (30.8%) behind surgery at 20.4% (33.6%) and all fields at 25.6% (42.3%). While this bottleneck is evident at the beginning of medical education, these straggling numbers continue at every juncture of becoming a physician resulting in a further silo effect in competitive surgical subspecialties like urology.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Urology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Rubright JD
        • Jodoin M
        • Barone MA
        Examining demographics, prior academic performance, and united states medical licensing examination scores.
        Academic Medicine. 2019; 94: 364-370
        • Youmans QR
        • Essien UR
        • Capers Q
        A test of diversity - what usmle pass/fail scoring means for medicine.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 2393-2395
        • Williams M
        • Kim EJ
        • Pappas K
        • et al.
        The impact of United States Medical Licensing Exam (usmle) step 1 cutoff scores on recruitment of underrepresented minorities in medicine: A retrospective cross-sectional study.
        Health Sci Rep. 2020; 3 (e2161:1–8)