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AUTHOR'S REPLY

      The editors note there exists a bottleneck at the level of recruiting underrepresented minority (URM) students into medical school. We made reference to this phenomenon citing the prevalence of URM students in medical school in 2019 was 14%, with a similar lag in URM (including Asian trainees) representation in urology trainees at 17.7% (30.8%) behind surgery at 20.4% (33.6%) and all fields at 25.6% (42.3%). While this bottleneck is evident at the beginning of medical education, these straggling numbers continue at every juncture of becoming a physician resulting in a further silo effect in competitive surgical subspecialties like urology.
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