Defining the Current Landscape of Women in Urology: An Analysis of Female Applicants, Residents, and Faculty at AUA-Accredited Residency Programs

Published:December 07, 2020DOI:



      To describe the current landscape of women in academic Urology and determine if there is a correlation between female applicant matches and the proportion of female faculty/residents at their home institution or matched program.


      We obtained 2020 American Urological Association (AUA) Match applicant demographics through social media platforms and program inquiries. The gender of full-time faculty and residents at AUA accredited programs was obtained from program websites. Correlations between proportions of female matched applicants and female faculty and residents were analyzed using linear regression models.


      A total of 353 residency slots at all 142 non-military programs were filled in the 2020 AUA Match, with 105 filled by women (30%). Of all applicants, 221 of 286 (77%) males and 105 of 122 (86%) females matched. Regarding institutions with urology residencies, women made up 27% of residents and 16% of full-time faculty. A total of 23 (17%) did not have any female faculty and 8 (6%) had no female residents. We found a positive correlation between the proportion of female residents and female faculty (r2 = 0.12, P <.0001). There was no significant correlation between the proportion of female matched applicants and female faculty or female residents at their matched programs or home institutions.


      The proportion of female residents within a urology program is positively correlated with the number of female faculty in the department, although further studies are needed to examine contributing factors. The current distribution of female applicants may demonstrate further narrowing of the gender gap within residency programs.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Urology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • American Urological Association
        The State of Urology Workforce and Practice in the United States 2019.
        2020 (Linthicum, MD, USAAvailable at:) (Accessed April 19, 2020)
        • Halpern JA
        • Lee UJ
        • Wolff EM
        • et al.
        Women in urology residency, 1978-2013: a critical look at gender representation in our specialty.
        Urology. 2016; 92: 20-25
      1. Kane L. Medscape Physician Compensation Report 2020. Medscape. Available at: Accessed May 17, 2020.

      2. AAMC. Total Enrollment by U.S. Medical School and Sex, 2015-2016 Through 2019-2020. Medscape. Available at: Accessed April 19, 2020.

      3. American Urological Association. Urology Residency Match Statistics. Available at: Accessed April 19, 2020.

        • Wong D
        • Ganesan V
        • Kuprasertkul I
        • Khouri Jr., RK
        • Lemack GE
        Reversing the decline in urology residency applications: an analysis of medical school factors critical to maintaining student interest.
        Urology. 2020; 136: 51-57
        • Neumayer L
        • Kaiser S
        • Anderson K
        • et al.
        Perceptions of women medical students and their influence on career choice.
        Am J Surg. 2002; 183: 146-150
        • Faucett EA
        • McCrary HC
        • Milinic T
        • Hassanzadeh T
        • Roward SG
        • Neumayer LA
        The role of same-sex mentorship and organizational support in encouraging women to pursue surgery.
        Am J Surg. 2017; 214: 640-644
        • Kerr HL
        • Armstrong LA
        • Cade JE
        Barriers to becoming a female surgeon and the influence of female surgical role models.
        Postgrad Med J. 2016; 92: 576-580
      4. American Urological Association. Accredited Listing of U.S. Urology Residency Programs. Available at: Accessed April 19, 2020.

        • Bradbury CL
        • King DK
        • Middleton RG
        Female urologists: a growing population.
        J Urol. 1997; 157: 1854-1856
        • Davis EC
        • Risucci DA
        • Blair PG
        • Sachdeva AK
        Women in surgery residency programs: evolving trends from a national perspective.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2011; 212: 320-326
        • Han J
        • Stillings S
        • Hamann H
        • Terry R
        • Moy L
        Gender and subspecialty of urology faculty in department-based leadership roles.
        Urology. 2017; 110: 36-39
        • Breyer BN
        • Butler C
        • Fang R
        • et al.
        Promotion disparities in academic urology.
        Urology. 2020; 138: 16-23
        • Dai JC
        • Agochukwu-Mmonu N
        • Hittelman AB
        Strategies for attracting women and underrepresented minorities in urology.
        Curr Urol Rep. 2019; 20: 61
        • Saltzman A
        • Hebert K
        • Richman A
        • et al.
        Women urologists: changing trends in the workforce.
        Urology. 2016; 91: 1-5
        • Ochberg RL
        • Barton GM
        • West AN
        Women physicians and their mentors.
        J Am Med Womens Assoc (1972). 1989; 44: 123-126
        • Aisen CM
        • Sui W
        • Pak JS
        • Pagano M
        • Cooper KL
        • Badalato GM
        Gender differences in the urology residency match-does it make a difference?.
        Urology. 2018; 111: 39-43
        • Kapur A
        • Cohen T
        • Hung M
        • et al.
        MP10-16 higher proportion of female urology applicants match to residency programs with higher female faculty and resident representation.
        J Urol. 2019; (Accessed April 19, 2020): 201