Decreased Recurrence of Urolithiasis After Simultaneous Ureteroscopic Surgery for Ureter and Ipsilateral Renal Calculi: Comparison to Shockwave Lithotripsy for Ureter Calculi Alone

Published:November 09, 2020DOI:



      To compare follow-up outcomes of ureteroscopy (URS) and shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) for ureter calculi in the setting of asymptomatic renal calculi <15 mm.


      This study included 789 patients who underwent URS (n = 301) or SWL (n = 488) as primary treatment for ureter calculi and who had ipsilateral renal calculi <15 mm between January 2012 and December 2019. For the URS group, all renal calculi were simultaneously treated unless contraindicated. One-to-one matching was performed using the propensity score (PS).


      After PS matching, analysis included 262 matched pairs of URS and SWL patients. The stone-free rate for ureter calculi without auxiliary procedure was 97.3% in the URS group and 93.9% in the SWL group. Any complication rates were 11.0% and 9.2% in the URS and SWL group, respectively; 1.1% of the URS patients experienced complications classified as Clavien–Dindo ≥IIIb. The estimated 2-year intervention-free survival was 88.1% in the URS group and 84.2% in the SWL group (P = 0.045). The estimated 2-year stone-event-free survival was 80.1% in the URS group and 71.0% in the SWL group (P = 0.009). Cox multivariate analysis showed that the hazard ratios of URS were 0.62 (P = 0.025) for surgical interventions and 0.64 (P = 0.008) for stone-related events after adjusting for baseline variables.


      For patients with symptomatic ureter calculi and asymptomatic renal calculi <15 mm, URS with active treatment for renal calculi reduces future ipsilateral surgical intervention and stone-related events compared with SWL for ureter calculi.
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