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The Effect of Radiation Therapy on the Efficacy of Internal Urethrotomy With Intralesional Mitomycin C for Recurrent Vesicourethral Anastomotic Stenoses and Bladder Neck Contractures: A Multi-Institutional Experience

Published:October 05, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.09.035

      Objective

      To assess the efficacy, effect of radiotherapy, and complications of direct visual internal urethrotomy (DVIU) and intralesional mitomycin C (MMC) for recurrent bladder neck contracture/vesicourethral anastomotic stenosis (BNC/VUAS).

      Methods

      Patients who underwent DVIU with intralesional MMC for recurrent BNC/VUAS between 2007 and 2019 at 2 institutions were included. Cold knife incisions were performed in a reproducible fashion followed by injection of 0.3-0.4 mg/mL MMC at each incision site. Those with evidence of complete urethral obliteration, stenosis of the entire posterior urethra, or <3 months follow-up were excluded. Success was defined as the ability to pass a 17-French cystoscope postoperatively without the need for catheterization or additional procedures.

      Results

      Eighty-six patients were analyzed over a median follow-up of 21.1 months. Around 91% had at least 1 prior DVIU, 56% had at least 1 prior dilation, and 44% presented with an indwelling catheter or performed intermittent catheterization. Success was achieved in 65% after 1 procedure, an additional 18% after 2 procedures, and another 7% after 3 or more procedures (90% overall success rate). Nonradiated patients showed a higher overall success rate compared to radiated patients (94% vs 76%, P = 0.04). Of the 9 cystoscopic failures, 5 were asymptomatic and pursued observation. Only 2 (5%) patients with a history of catheterization required this postoperatively. Two patients underwent subsequent urinary diversion surgery. No long-term complications were seen.

      Conclusion

      DVIU with low-dose MMC remains a safe and effective BNC/VUAS treatment. A patent bladder neck was achieved in >90% of nonradiated patients and >75% of radiated patients.
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