Survival Outcomes in Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for High-grade Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: A Nationally Representative Analysis

Published:September 03, 2020DOI:



      To assess the impact of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) on survival outcomes in a contemporary cohort of patients with in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).


      The National Cancer Database was queried from 2004 to 2015 to identify subjects who underwent nephroureterectomy for UTUC. Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test was performed to compare all-cause mortality between patients who received preoperative chemotherapy to those who did not at each pathologic (p) TNM stage group: T1-4N0, N+, and M+ disease. Associations for all-cause mortality were identified using an adjusted Cox regression analysis.


      A total of 10,315 chemoeligible subjects were included in the analysis. A total of 296 (2.9%) of patients received NAC prior to NU. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the entire cohort demonstrated an overall survival advantage associated with administration of NAC (P = .017). Stratified by clinical staging, subjects with nonorgan-confined tumors had improved overall survival outcomes with NAC administration (P = .012). On multivariate analysis there was a statistically significant improvement in overall survival between in patients who received NAC. Of patients in the preoperative chemotherapy group who had clinically nonorgan-confined disease, 27.1% had organ-confined disease at time of surgery compared to 1.4% of those who underwent surgery as initial therapy.


      In a contemporary cohort of subjects who underwent nephroureterectomy for UTUC, administration of NAC in patients with high-grade nonorgan-confined disease led to higher rates of pathologic downstaging and was associated with improved overall survival.
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