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Risk of Genitourinary Malignancy in the Renal Transplant Patient

      OBJECTIVE

      To better understand the risk of genitourinary malignancies in the renal transplant patient. Currently, no consensus exists regarding screening and intervention, with much of the clinical decision-making based on historical practices established before recent progress in immunosuppression protocols and in genitourinary cancer diagnosis and management.

      METHODS

      A database of all solid organ transplants performed at the University of Minnesota from 1984 to 2019 was queried for renal transplant recipients in whom development of subsequent urologic malignancies (prostate, bladder, renal, penile, and testicular cancer) was found.

      RESULTS

      Among 6172 renal transplant recipients examined, cumulative incidence of all cancers of genitourinary etiology are presented over an average follow-up time of 10 years. Kidney cancer (combined graft and native), prostate cancer, and bladder cancer each demonstrated respective 30-year incidence of 4.6%, 8.7%, and 1.5% from the time of transplant. By comparison, age-matched data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database demonstrated 30-year cumulative incidence of 1.1%, 11.1%, and 1.7% for kidney cancer, prostate cancer, and bladder cancer respectively. The predominant genitourinary cancer was renal cell cancer, both of the native and of the transplanted kidney (native, n = 64; transplanted, n =11), followed by prostate cancer (n = 63), and bladder cancer (n = 37).

      CONCLUSION

      In this closely followed cohort of renal transplant recipients, renal cancer occurs at a higher incidence rate than in the non-transplanted population, while a lower rate of prostate cancer was found, with bladder cancer demonstrating a comparable cumulative incidence between transplant patients and the national age-matched population.
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