Predictive Risk Factors for Continued Smoking after the Diagnosis of a Genitourinary Malignancy


      To determine risk factors for continued smoking following a diagnosis of a genitourinary (GU) malignancy. Smoking is a well established risk factor in the development of cancers involving the GU tract. Unfortunately, a large percentage of patients continue to smoke or relapse after cancer diagnosis; by doing so, there is an increased risk of recurrence, poor survival rates, treatment complications, secondary primary cancers, and other chronic smoking related illnesses.

      Materials and Methods

      Two hundred and five patients who presented to a Urologic Oncology clinic at a single tertiary treatment center were given smoking cessation counseling and pharmacotherapy, as well as a questionnaire which was used to identify smoking status, demographics, and behavioral/psychosocial characteristics. Patients were followed for a minimum of 1 year with a median length of follow up for 13 months.


      91% of patients enrolled in the study continued smoking at survey completion. After accounting for age, ethnicity, education and cigarettes consumed/day, 5 variables were independently associated with an increased risk of continued smoking: smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day, less than 2 prior quit attempts, anxiety and/or depression, fear of cancer recurrence, and home secondhand smoke exposure.


      The role of the urologist is imperative for encouraging smoking cessation. While every patient should receive adequate counseling regarding smoking at the time of a GU malignancy diagnosis, identifying patients with the risk factors noted in this study and augmenting smoking cessation efforts may result in stronger efforts to quit and prevention of long-term complications.
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