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Urinary Tract Anomalies in Patients With Anorectal Malformations: The Role of Screening and Clinical Follow-Up

      Objective

      To evaluate the efficacy of the screening protocol and the clinical follow-up to detect urological anomalies (UA) in patients with ARM (ARM-P) in our institution. Secondary aim was to define the prevalence of UA and their relationship with severity of ARM.

      Methods

      ARM-P were selected from a prospectively maintained database from 2000 to 2016. Exclusion criteria were: incomplete or with less than 3 years of follow-up and absence of surgical correction of the anorectal anomalies. Data from urological screening and follow-up were collected. Patients were divided into complex malformations (Group 1) and less complex malformations (Group 2).

      Results

      One hundred seventeen of 149 were included in the study period (62 group 1, 55 group 2). UA were detected in 36/117 at birth (30.7%) with a difference between groups (P = .0005). VUR was detected in 16 (6 with hydronephrosis, 10 with normal ultrasound at birth). A bladder ultrasound after potty training showed 18 lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD; 15 with UA detected at birth, 3 with normal ultrasound). 8 LUTD were found during clinical follow-up, confirmed by ultrasound. Spinal MRI detected spinal cord anomalies (SCA) in 52/117 (44.4%). Considering the subgroups with neurogenic bladder and SCA there was a difference between groups (13/33 vs 1/19).

      Conclusion

      This study suggests that ARM-P are at increased risk of UA, most of which were detected on neonatal ultrasound. While screening protocol can show 88% of UA, follow-up can detect 12.9 % of total abnormalities without difference between groups. This data has to be considered when planning follow-up for these patients.
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