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Implementation of a Dedicated Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) Program for Radical Cystectomy Patients is Associated With Decreased Postoperative Inpatient Opioid Usage and Pain Scores

      Objective

      To measure differences in post-operative opioid usage and pain scores between pre- and post-Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) radical cystectomy (RC) patients in an effort to optimize outcomes.

      Study design

      We performed a retrospective cohort study from a single institution from January 1, 2015 to July 31, 2018 among 86 and 108 pre- and post-ERAS RC patients. The primary endpoints were total mean opioid usage (morphine equivalent daily dosing or MEDD) and mean pain scores (Visual Analog Scale) on postoperative days (POD) 1-3. Secondary endpoints were number of opioid pills prescribed at discharge and within 30 days of discharge. Multivariable model selection was carried out with forward selection and backward elimination to identify variables associated with key outcomes.

      Results

      Total mean usage of opioids and mean pain scores were significantly lower in post-ERAS vs pre-ERAS patients across POD 1-3, respectively (32.90 MEDD vs 99.86 MEDD, P ≤ .001; 3.51 vs 4.17, P = .003). The median number of opioid pills prescribed at discharge was significantly lower in the post-ERAS group compared to pre-ERAS (30 pills vs 45 pills, P = .046) as well as the median number opioid pills prescribed within 30 days of discharge (40 pills vs 50 pills, P = .001).

      Conclusion

      Our study suggests that a dedicated ERAS protocol following RC might be superior to traditional, non-ERAS methods in reducing postoperative opioid use and pain scores.

      Abbreviations:

      ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists), BMI (body mass index), CCI (Charlson Comorbidity index), EIAS (ERAS interactive audit system), ERAS (enhanced recovery after surgery), IQR (interquartile range), LOS (length of stay), MEDD (morphine equivalent daily dosing), PCA (patient-controlled analgesial), POD (Postoperative day), RC (radical cystectomy), ROBF (return of bowel function), TAP (transversus abdominis plane), TNM (tumor-nodes-metastasis), VAS (visual analog scale)
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