Contemporary Patterns of Third-line Treatments for Privately Insured Individuals With Overactive Bladder in the United States


      To evaluate utilization of third-line overactive bladder (OAB) treatments including percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), and intradetrusor botulinum toxin A (BTX) among privately insured patients and examine factors associated with their use.


      Using MarketScan claims (2015-2017), we identified patients who underwent third-line OAB treatments based on procedure codes. Factors of interest included location, age, health plan, among others. We fit multivariable logistic regression models to estimate associations between pertinent factors with receipt of PTNS and SNS relative to BTX and associations between provider type and practice location with each treatment modality.


      We identified 7383 patients (mean age 50.9) in our cohort. SNS was used most frequently (n = 3602, 48.8%), while PTNS was used least frequently (n = 955, 12.9%). PTNS patients were more likely to reside in metropolitan areas (vs BTX: OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3-2.1; vs SNS: OR 2.2, 95%CI 1.7-2.8), be aged 55 years or older (vs BTX: 54% vs 47%, OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.1; vs SNS: 54% vs 45%, OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.2-2.0), and be covered under a health maintenance organization (vs BTX: 17% vs 10%; vs SNS: 17% vs 10%, P <.01). Urologists were most likely to perform SNS, and gynecologists were most likely to perform BTX. 91% of PTNS procedures were performed in office settings.


      Among patients receiving third-line OAB treatment, PTNS was used infrequently. PTNS utilization was concentrated within urban areas, and among older patients and those covered by cost-conscious health maintenance organizations.
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