Promotion Disparities in Academic Urology

Published:January 06, 2020DOI:



      To better understand promotion timelines across gender and race/ethnicity and how academic output impacts promotion in urology.


      We examined the 2017 census. An academic subset was asked questions regarding their promotion timeline. We obtained demographic, academic output, and family responsibility data.


      Of 2926 academic urologists who identified a position of Assistant, Associate, or Full professor, 11.2% were women, 75% were White, and 94% were non-Hispanic. Men authored more papers and achieved principal investigator status more often than women. Non-Hispanics authored more papers than Hispanics. On average, women took 1.2 years longer than men to advance from Assistant to Associate Professor (7.3 years [95% CI: 6.8-7.8] vs 6.1 years, [95% CI: 5.8-6.6, P <.001]). Advancement from Associate to Full Professor was similar between women and men (6.0 years [95% CI: 5.1-6.9] vs 6.6 [95% CI: 6.1-7.1, P = .25]). Compared to women, men were more likely to experience rapid promotion (≤4 years) to Associate Professor (odds ratio 3 [95% CI: 1.8-5.1]). There was no statistical difference across race/ethnicity for promotion from Assistant to Associate, Associate to Full Professor, or rapid promotion.


      We identified disparities in promotion times based on gender but not race and ethnicity. The number of under-represented minority faculty in urology is low. Understanding the causes of disparities should be a priority in order to support fair promotion practices and retention of diverse faculty.
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