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Chemoradiation Vs Radical Cystectomy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Propensity Score-weighted Comparative Analysis Using the National Cancer Database

      ABSTRACT

      Objective

      To address the overarching question whether chemoradiation therapy (CMT) offers overall survival (OS) similar to that of radical cystectomy (RC) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), we performed analyses using the National Cancer Database.

      Materials and Methods

      Patients diagnosed with MIBC in 2004-2014 who underwent RC or received primary CMT were identified in the National Cancer Database. Survival was estimated using the weighted Kaplan-Meier method, and propensity score-weighted Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate association of clinicopathologic features with outcome.

      Results

      Of 484,367 patients with a diagnosis of bladder cancer, 35,856 underwent RC and 4050 received CMT. After applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria, data for 15,854 patients who underwent RC and 2083 who received CMT were available for analysis. Five-year OS was 40.4% in the RC group and 29.4% in the CMT group (P <.001). OS was significantly shorter in the CMT group than in the RC group in both multivariate analysis (hazards ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22; P <.001) and propensity score-weighted analysis (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30; P <.001). Interaction terms indicated better survival after RC in patients younger than 70 years (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.34-1.93; P <.001); subgroup analyses identified a survival benefit in patients with N0/N1 disease who underwent RC (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.33; P <.001).

      Conclusion and Relevance

      OS after 1 year of treatment was increased in RC group compared to CMT group in patient with MIBC. Further studies are required to identify optimal treatment for specific patients.
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