Oncology| Volume 133, P164-174, November 2019

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Chemoradiation Vs Radical Cystectomy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Propensity Score-weighted Comparative Analysis Using the National Cancer Database



      To address the overarching question whether chemoradiation therapy (CMT) offers overall survival (OS) similar to that of radical cystectomy (RC) in muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), we performed analyses using the National Cancer Database.

      Materials and Methods

      Patients diagnosed with MIBC in 2004-2014 who underwent RC or received primary CMT were identified in the National Cancer Database. Survival was estimated using the weighted Kaplan-Meier method, and propensity score-weighted Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate association of clinicopathologic features with outcome.


      Of 484,367 patients with a diagnosis of bladder cancer, 35,856 underwent RC and 4050 received CMT. After applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria, data for 15,854 patients who underwent RC and 2083 who received CMT were available for analysis. Five-year OS was 40.4% in the RC group and 29.4% in the CMT group (P <.001). OS was significantly shorter in the CMT group than in the RC group in both multivariate analysis (hazards ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22; P <.001) and propensity score-weighted analysis (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30; P <.001). Interaction terms indicated better survival after RC in patients younger than 70 years (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.34-1.93; P <.001); subgroup analyses identified a survival benefit in patients with N0/N1 disease who underwent RC (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.33; P <.001).

      Conclusion and Relevance

      OS after 1 year of treatment was increased in RC group compared to CMT group in patient with MIBC. Further studies are required to identify optimal treatment for specific patients.
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