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Trends and Predictors of Adjuvant Therapy for Adverse Features Following Radical Prostatectomy: An Analysis From Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor

      Abstract

      OBJECTIVE

      To determine trends and predictors of adjuvant therapy in patients with adverse features at radical prostatectomy (RP), and to investigate the associations of adjuvant therapy and adverse feature type with survival.

      METHODS

      From the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor registry (1990-2017), 2209 men with adverse features (pT3N0M0 disease and/or positive surgical margins), and 108 men with positive lymph nodes (pN1) at RP were identified. Temporal trends were evaluated, and predictors of adjuvant therapy were assessed with multivariate logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier analysis and competing risks regression were used to test cumulative incidence and risk of all-cause and prostate cancer-specific mortality.

      RESULTS

      Of 2209 men with adverse features and pN0 disease, 89 (4.0%), 82 (3.7%), and 30 (1.4%) received adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (ERBT) alone, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone, or combined EBRT and ADT, respectively. Of 108 men with pN1 disease, 54 (50%) received ADT with or without EBRT. Adjuvant treatment for patients with adverse features decreased from 13.3% (1990-1994) to 6% or less (2005-2017, Ptrend <.001). Patients with margin positive pT3a (odds ratio 4.13; 95% confidence interval 2.21-7.73; P<.01) and margin positive pT3b disease (odds ratio 7.09; 95% confidence interval 3.66-1.73; P<.01) had greater odds of receiving adjuvant therapy compared to patients with margin negative pT3a disease. Adverse feature type was associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality in univariate analysis (log-rank P <.01), but not in competing risks regression (P= .06).

      CONCLUSION

      Adjuvant therapy declined for men with adverse features at RP. Providers do not treat all adverse feature types the same way, despite broad treatment recommendations in guidelines.
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