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Renal Trauma Increases Risk of Future Hypertension

      Objective

      To determine if traumatic renal injuries or computed tomography (CT) findings are predictive of hypertension (HTN) development following injury.

      Methods

      A retrospective review of a renal trauma database was performed from 1995 to 2015. Renal injuries were graded by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma system, with high-grade defined as IV or V. Nonrenal genitourinary trauma (ie bladder, penile, urethral, and testicular) patients were selected as controls. Patients with a diagnosis of HTN before their trauma or those lacking follow-up were excluded. Risk factors associated with HTN following trauma were identified using multivariable regression with propensity scoring.

      Results

      In total, 163 patients had a renal injury and 60 had nonrenal, genitourinary injuries. The median age was 31 years (interquartile range 23-43) with median follow-up of 4.7 years (interquartile range 1.9-8.5). Twenty-three (14%) patients with renal trauma were newly diagnosed with HTN on follow-up, compared with 2 (3%) in the control groups. (P = .02) After propensity quartile adjustment, patients with high-grade trauma had higher odds of developing HTN compared with low-grade renal trauma patients and controls (adjusted odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.3-9.3, P = .01). Patients with a midpole medial laceration and medial blood on CT had higher odds of developing HTN compared with patients without these characteristics (odds ratio 5.36, 95% confidence interval 1.3-22.6, P = .02).

      Conclusion

      Increasing renal trauma grade is a risk factor for future development of HTN. CT findings at trauma presentation may be useful in stratifying patients who are at increased risk.
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