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Chronic Kidney Disease Is More Common in Locally Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

      Objective

      To retrospectively evaluate clinical predictors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients to identify associations between patient- and tumor-specific factors with poorer renal function. CKD and RCC are interrelated, with 26%-44% of RCC patients having concomitant CKD at diagnosis.

      Patients and Methods

      Institutional registries from Spectrum Health and University of California, San Diego, were queried for preoperative glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria status before radical or partial nephrectomy. Preoperative clinical and tumor factors were recorded; proteinuria was classified as A1 (<30 mg), A2 (30-300 mg), and A3 (>300 mg). CKD was grouped by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes classification (low, moderately increased, high, very high).

      Results

      We evaluated 1569 patients undergoing surgery for renal cortical tumors. CKD status was low risk in 860 (55%), moderately increased in 381 (24%), high in 194 (12%), and very high in 134 (9%) patients. Increased radius, exophytic or endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to the collecting system or sinus in millimeters, anterior or posterior, location relative to polar lines score, tumor size, and clinical tumor stage were strongly associated with increased CKD risk at baseline. Clinical stage T3/T4 disease had more at-risk patients than stages T2 and T1 disease (39.5% vs 22% and 19%, P = .0001). Clinical tumor stage and gender were the only predictors of proteinuria, lower glomerular filtration rate, and higher CKD risk group in both univariate and multivariate analyses.

      Conclusion

      Forty-five percent of patients with RCC had moderate or higher CKD before treatment. A positive correlation between pretreatment CKD and locally advanced RCC (cT3/T4) was present. This likely relates to increased loss of functional parenchyma with increasing tumor size or stage, with important implications in patient management.
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