Advertisement

Chronic prostatitis: epidemiology and role of infection

      Abstract

      We review the epidemiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and the role of infectious agents, emphasizing critical data necessary to define current research issues. The epidemiologic literature is limited, but the worldwide prevalence appears to be in the range of 2% to 10%, indicating that CP/CPPS represents an important international health problem. Recent molecular studies have documented bacterial DNA sequences in prostate tissue from CP/CPPS patients. These data suggest that colonization and/or infection occurs in the prostates of many patients with CP/CPPS. Further molecular research is needed to define the role of bacteria in the etiology of CP/CPPS.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Urology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. Stamey TA: Pathogenesis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections. Baltimore,Williams and Wilkins, 1980

        • Nickel J.C.
        • Nyberg L.M.
        • Hennenfent M.
        Research guidelines for chronic prostatitis.
        Urology. 1999; 54: 229-233
        • Moon T.D.
        Questionnaire survey of urologists and primary care physicians’ diagnostic and treatment practices for prostatitis.
        Urology. 1997; 50: 543-547
        • Roberts R.O.
        • Lieber M.M.
        • Rhodes T.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of a physician-assigned diagnosis of prostatitis.
        Urology. 1998; 51: 578-584
        • Collins M.M.
        • Stafford R.S.
        • O’Leary M.P.
        • et al.
        How common is prostatitis? A national survey of physician visits.
        J Urol. 1998; 159: 1224-1228
        • Collins M.M.
        • Meigs J.B.
        • Barry M.J.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and correlates of prostatitis in the health professionals follow-up study cohort.
        J Urol. 2002; 167: 1363-1366
        • Nickel J.C.
        • Downey J.
        • Hunter D.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms in a population based study using the National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptom index.
        J Urol. 2001; 165: 842-845
        • Mehik A.
        • Hellstrom P.
        • Lukkarinen O.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology of prostatitis in Finnish men.
        BJU Int. 2000; 86: 443-448
        • Cheah P.Y.
        • Liong H.L.
        • Ee L.W.
        • et al.
        Chronic prostatitis.
        J Urol. 2002; 167 (Abstract 109): 27
        • Khiaw-ngiap J.
        • Png D.J.
        • Liew L.C.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms (PS) in a population based study.
        J Urol. 2001; 165 (Abstract 97): 23
        • Roberts R.O.
        • Jacobson D.J.
        • Lieber M.M.
        • et al.
        Prevalence of prostatitis-like symptoms in community-dwelling men.
        J Urol. 2001; 165 (Abstract 102): 24
        • Kunishima Y.
        • Matsukawa M.
        • Shimizu T.
        • et al.
        The usefulness of the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index in Japan.
        J Urol. 2001; 165 (Abstract 103): 24
      2. Gushchin B, and Me F: Epidemiological data on the prevalent diagnostic and treatment procedures for chronic prostatitis in the ambulatory care setting. Presented at the National Institutes of Health, International Prostatitis Collaborative Network, 3rd Annual Meeting; Arlington VA; October 23-25, 2000

        • Krieger J.N.
        • Egan K.J.
        Comprehensive evaluation and treatment of 75 men referred to chronic prostatitis clinic.
        Urology. 1991; 38: 11-19
        • Krieger J.N.
        • Nyberg Jr, L.
        • Nickel J.C.
        NIH consensus definition and classification of prostatitis.
        JAMA. 1999; 282: 236-237
        • Nickel J.C.
        • Downey J.
        • Johnston B.
        • et al.
        Predictors of patient response to antibiotic therapy for the chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
        J Urol. 2001; 165: 1539-1544
        • Abdelatif O.M.
        • Chandler F.W.
        • McGuire Jr, B.S.
        Chlamydia trachomatis in chronic abacterial prostatitis.
        Hum Pathol. 1991; 22: 41-44
        • Bruce A.W.
        • Reid G.
        Prostatitis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis in 6 patients.
        J Urol. 1989; 142: 1006-1007
        • Shurbaji M.S.
        • Gupta P.K.
        • Myers J.
        Immunohistochemical demonstration of Chlamydial antigens in association with prostatitis.
        Mod Pathol. 1988; 1: 348-351
        • Weidner W.
        • Schiefer H.G.
        • Krauss H.
        Role of Chlamydia trachomatis and mycoplasmas in chronic prostatitis. A review.
        Urol Int. 1988; 43: 167-173
        • Brunner H.
        • Weidner W.
        • Schiefer H.G.
        Studies on the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in prostatitis.
        J Infect Dis. 1983; 147: 807-813
        • Kuberski T.
        Trichomonas vaginalis associated with nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis.
        Sex Transm Dis. 1980; 7: 135-136
        • Kurnatowska A.
        • Kurnatowski A.
        • Mazurek L.
        • et al.
        [Rare cases of prostatitis caused by invasion of Trichomonas vaginalis with Candida albicans].
        Wiad Parazytol. 1990; 36: 229-236
        • Krieger J.
        • Ross S.
        • Berger R.
        • et al.
        Cryptic microorganisms and prostatitis.
        in: Nickel J. Textbook of prostatitis. Isis Medical Media, Oxford1999: 139-148
        • Nickel J.C.
        • Costerton J.W.
        Coagulase-negative staphylococcus in chronic prostatitis.
        J Urol. 1992; 147 (discussion 400–401): 398-400
        • Nickel J.
        • Bruce A.
        • Reid G.
        Pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the prostatitis syndromes.
        in: Krane R. Siroky M. Fitzpatrick J. Clinical Urology. J.B. Lippincott, Philadelphia1994: 925-938
        • Berger R.E.
        • Krieger J.N.
        • Kessler D.
        • et al.
        Case-control study of men with suspected chronic idiopathic prostatitis.
        J Urol. 1989; 141: 328-331
        • Berger R.E.
        • Krieger J.N.
        • Rothman I.
        • et al.
        Bacteria in the prostate tissue of men with idiopathic prostatic inflammation.
        J Urol. 1997; 157: 863-865
        • Krieger J.N.
        • Riley D.E.
        • Roberts M.C.
        • et al.
        Prokaryotic DNA sequences in patients with chronic idiopathic prostatitis.
        J Clin Microbiol. 1996; 34: 3120-3128
        • Dojka M.A.
        • Hugenholtz P.
        • Haack S.K.
        • et al.
        Microbial diversity in a hydrocarbon- and chlorinated-solvent-contaminated aquifer undergoing intrinsic bioremediation.
        Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998; 64: 3869-3877
        • Relman D.A.
        The identification of uncultured microbial pathogens.
        J Infect Dis. 1993; 168: 1-8
        • Roberts M.C.
        • Pang Y.
        • Riley D.E.
        • et al.
        Detection of Tet M and Tet O tetracycline resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction.
        Mol Cell Probes. 1993; 7: 387-393
        • Leng Z.
        • Riley D.E.
        • Berger R.E.
        • et al.
        Distribution and mobility of the tetracycline resistance determinant tetQ.
        J Antimicrob Chemother. 1997; 40: 551-559
        • Riley D.E.
        • Berger R.E.
        • Miner D.C.
        • et al.
        Diverse and related 16S rRNA-encoding DNA sequences in prostate tissues of men with chronic prostatitis.
        J Clin Microbiol. 1998; 36: 1646-1652
        • Keay S.
        • Zhang C.O.
        • Baldwin B.R.
        • et al.
        Polymerase chain reaction amplification of bacterial 16s rRNA genes in prostate biopsies from men without chronic prostatitis.
        Urology. 1999; 53: 487-491
        • Hochreiter W.W.
        • Duncan J.L.
        • Schaeffer A.J.
        Evaluation of the bacterial flora of the prostate using a 16S rRNA gene based polymerase chain reaction.
        J Urol. 2000; 163: 127-130
        • Krieger J.N.
        • Riley D.E.
        • Vesella R.L.
        • et al.
        Bacterial DNA sequences in prostate tissue from patients with prostate cancer and chronic prostatitis.
        J Urol. 2000; 164: 1221-1228

      Linked Article